Problem Formulation and Options Assessment Handbook:
A guide to the PFOA process and how to integrate it into environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
by Kristen C. Nelson and Michael J. Banker
The PFOA Handbook is designed to be downloaded and printed double-sided, in color or black and white. We ask that you email the authors at [email protected] if you plan to print the handbook or make CDs for distribution so we are aware of who is considering the PFOA issues in the context of environmental risk assessment.
- Download for color printing (PDF, 22 MB)
- Download for black and white printing (PDF, 22 MB)
- View PFOA Handbook table of contents (PDF, 7kB)
- Download and print the CD cover (PDF, 690 kB)
About the PFOA Handbook
The Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) provides a framework for identifying the crucial societal needs that could be satisfied by introducing a GM crop into an agricultural system, and comparing the GM crop to other possible alternatives for meeting that critical societal need. To this end, a PFOA relies upon being transparent, inclusive of all appropriate stakeholders, and rationally informed by the best available science. To make this process tool accessible to interested users, we have developed the PFOA Handbook.
The purpose of the handbook is to:
- Introduce and explain the substance, theory, and practice of the PFOA methodology
- Provide guidance about the integration of a PFOA into a country’s environmental risk assessment (ERA) procedures for genetically modified organisms (GMO)
- Examine considerations, techniques, and resources that can assist in designing, implementing, and conducting a country-specific PFOA
The handbook was designed to accommodate and account for users around the world, recognizing that each country has particular contexts (e.g. ecosystems, laws and regulations, political infrastructures, culture) and faces distinct challenges when trying to customize a PFOA process. The primary audiences are the government agencies and personnel responsible for conducting ERAs of GMOs within a particular country. This includes those already committed to using the PFOA methodology in their ERAs and those who are considering doing so. The secondary audience is anyone who would participate in a PFOA process or seek to include it in the governance of GMOs.